AIDS Dementia Complex
AIDS Dementia Complex
(ADC; AIDS Encephalopathy; AIDS-related Dementia; ARD; HIV-associated Dementia Complex; HIV Encephalopathy; HIV Associated Encephalopathy (HAE), HIV associated Cognitive/Motor Complex)
- Cognition—the ability to understand, process, and remember information
- Behavior—difficulty performing daily tasks
- Emotions—may have personality changes and depression
- Motor coordination—the ability to coordinate muscles and movement
|HIV destroys white blood cells vital to the immune system.|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Untreated HIV infection
- Late-stage AIDS
Stage 1 (Mild)
- Difficulty concentrating
- Difficulty remembering details (eg, phone numbers, appointments, tracking daily activities)
- Slowed thinking
- Longer time needed to complete complicated tasks
- Unsteady walking, tremor, or difficulty keeping balance
- Poor hand function
- Change in handwriting
Stage 2 (Moderate)
- More focus and attention needed
- Slow responses
- Frequently dropping objects
- Feelings of indifference or apathy
- Slowness or difficulty with normal activities (eg, eating, writing)
Stages 3 and 4 (Severe and End Stage)
- Loss of bladder or bowel control
- Abnormal gait, making walking more difficult
- Withdrawing from life
- Severe mental disorder (ie, psychosis, mania)
- Unable to leave bed
- Anti-anxiety medicines
- Mood stabilizers
- Medicines to prevent seizures
- Abstain from sex.
- If you do have sex, use a male latex condom .
- Limit your number of sexual partners.
- Avoid sexual partners who are HIV-infected or injection drug users.
- Do not share needles for drug injection.
- Avoid having transfusions of blood products that have not been screened.
If you are a healthcare worker:
- Wear appropriate gloves and facial masks during all procedures.
- Carefully handle and properly dispose of needles.
- Carefully follow universal precautions.
If you live in a household with someone who has HIV:
- Wear appropriate gloves if handling HIV-infected bodily fluids.
- Cover your cuts and sores with bandages. Also cover cuts and sores on the person with HIV.
- Do not share any personal hygiene items (eg, razors, toothbrushes).
- Carefully handle and properly dispose of needles used for medicine.
American Foundation for AIDS Research http://www.amfar.org/
National Association of People with AIDS http://www.napwa.org/
AIDS Committee of Toronto http://www.actoronto.org/
Canadian AIDS Society http://www.cdnaids.ca/
AIDS dementia complex. EBSCO Patient Education Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/pointofcare . Updated February 28, 2012. Accessed November 21, 2012.
AIDS dementia complex. Project Inform website. Available at: http://www.projectinform.org/publications/adc/ . Updated January 2011. Accessed November 21, 2012.
AIDS dementia complex. University of California at San Francisco website. Available at: http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=id-01-08 . Accessed November 21, 2012.
HIV-associated dementia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed . Updated February 10, 2012. Accessed November 21, 2012.
Luo X, Carlson KA, Wojna V, et al. Macrophage proteomic fingerprinting predicts HIV-1-associated cognitive impairment. Neurology. 2003;60:1931-1937.
Meehan RA, Brush JA. An overview of AIDS dementia complex. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2001;16:225-229.
Nicholas MK, Lukas R, van Besein K. Textbook of Neurological Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins; 2011: chap 46.
Royal W. HIV-associated Dementia. In: Gilman S, ed. MedLink Neurology. San Diego, CA: MedLink Corp.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 11/2012 -
- Update Date: 11/26/2012 -