Vesicoureteral Reflux -- Child
(VUR—Child; Reflux Nephropathy—Child; Chronic Atrophic Pyelonephritis—Child; Vesico-Ureteric Reflux—Child; Ureteral Reflux—Child)
|The Urinary Tract|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- A problem in the way the ureter inserts into the bladder
- A ureter that does not extend far enough into the bladder
- Neurogenic bladder—loss of normal bladder function due to damaged nerves reaching the bladder
- Family history (especially if a sibling or parent has VUR)
- Birth defects that affect the urinary tract
- Birth defects that affect the spinal cord, such as spina bifida
- Tumors in the spinal cord or pelvis
- Frequent and urgent need to urinate
- Passing small amounts of urine
- Pain in the abdomen or pelvic area
- Burning sensation during urination
- Cloudy, bad-smelling urine
- Increased need to get up at night to urinate
- Blood in the urine
- Leaking urine
- Low back pain or pain along the side of the ribs
- Fever and chills
- Blood tests—to assess how well the kidneys are functioning
- Urine tests—to look for evidence of an infection or damage to the kidneys
- Ultrasound —a test that uses sound waves to examine the kidney and bladder
- CT scan —a type of x-ray that uses computers to make pictures of structures in the body
Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)—a liquid that can be seen on
is placed in the bladder through a catheter; x-rays are taken when the bladder is filled and when urinating
- Note: This test is not done routinely in children aged 2-24 months.
- Radionuclide cystogram (RNC)—a test like VCUG, but uses a different kind of liquid to obtain images
- Intravenous pyelogram —also uses a liquid that can be seen on x-rays; images are taken as the substance travels from the blood (after being injected into a vein) into the kidneys and bladder
- Nuclear scans—a variety of tests using radioactive materials injected into a vein or the bladder to show how well the urinary system is working
- Antibiotics—If an infection is present or possible.
- Tests to check how the kidneys are functioning
- Ureteral reimplantation surgery—This can be done in two ways. One requires making an incision above the pubic bone and repositioning the ureters in the bladder. It can also be done laparoscopically, with cameras being inserted through small incisions in the abdomen and/or bladder to do the surgery.
- Endoscopic injection into the ureter—This is a minimally invasive surgery that is done to correct the reflux. A gel is injected where the ureter inserts into the bladder. This can block urine from flowing back up the ureter.
National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org
Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org
BC Health Guide http://www.bchealthguide.org
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
Valla JS, Steyaert H, et al. Transvesicoscopic Cohen ureteric reimplantation for vesicoureteral reflux in children: A single-centre 5-year experience. J Pediatr Urol. 2009;5(6):466-471.
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Cincinnati Children’s website. Available at: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/info/urinary/diagnose/vesicoureteral-reflux.htm. Updated October 2012. Accessed January 21, 2015.
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children. Boston Children’s Hospital website. Available at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/health-topics/conditions/vesicoureteral-reflux-vur. Accessed January 21, 2015.
Vesicoureteral reflux. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 28, 2014. Accessed January 21, 2015.
4/1/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Choosing wisely. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 26, 2014. Accessed April 1, 2014.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/05/2014 -