(SD; Adductor Laryngeal Breathing Dystonia (ABLD); Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia; Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia; Dysphonia, Episodic Laryngeal Dyskinesia; Laryngeal Dystonia; Spastic Dysphonia)
- Adductor spasmodic dysphonia—spasms cause muscles to stiffen and close
- Abductor spasmodic dysphonia—spasms cause muscles to spastically open
- Mixed spasmodic dysphonia
|Spasmodic dysphonia affects the throat muscles.|
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- Degenerative brain diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
- Another movement disorder such as tardive dyskinesia
- Family history of SD—In some families, a gene on chromosome 9 may be connected to SD.
- Brain infection such as encephalitis
- Exposure to toxins or certain medications such as phenothiazines
- Squeaky, strained speech
- No speech at all
- Speech with the wrong pitch and tone
- Breaks in speech
- Breathy voice
- Neurologist—to evaluate your brain function
- Speech pathologist—to evaluate your speech and how it’s produced
- Otolaryngologist—to evaluate your vocal cords
- Medication—to increase dopamine, a chemical in the brain that influences muscle movement
- Botulinum toxin injections—to reduce muscle spasms
- Speech therapy techniques—to relax muscles
- Brain stimulation—to prevent muscles from freezing and going into spasm
- Counseling—to help deal with the condition
- Surgery in severe cases—to cut or remove a nerve that is connected to the vocal cords
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association http://www.asha.org
National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association http://www.dysphonia.org
Ontario Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists http://www.osla.on.ca
Speech-Language and Audiology Canada http://sac-oac.ca
Daniilidou, P, Carding P, Wilson, J, Drinnan, M, Deary, V. Cognitive behavioral therapy for functional dysphonia. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 2007;116:717-722.
Diagnosis. National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association website. Available at: http://www.dysphonia.org/diagnosis.php. Accessed November 26, 2014.
Rosow DE, Parikh P, et al. Considerations for initial dosing of botulinum toxin in treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013; 148(6):1003-6.
Spasmodic dysphonia. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website. Available at: http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/SpasmodicDysphonia.htm. Accessed November 26, 2014.
Spasmodic dysphonia. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders website. Available at: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/Pages/spasdysp.aspx. Updated October 2010. Accessed November 26, 2014.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 12/2014 -
- Update Date: 12/20/2014 -