Other Proposed Natural Treatments
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
Herbs and Supplements to Avoid
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3 Fintelmann V, Albert A. Proof of the therapeutic efficacy of LegalonW for toxic liver illnesses in a double-blind trial [translated from German]. Therapiewoche. 1980;30:5589-5594.
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6 Ferenci P, Dragosics B, Dittrich H, et al. Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. J Hepatol. 1989;9:105-113.
7 Benda L, Dittrich H, Ferenzi P, et al. The influence of therapy with silymarin on the survival rate of patients with liver cirrhosis [translated from German]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1980;92:678-683.
8 Pares A, Planas R, Torres M, et al. Effects of silymarin in alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of the liver: results of a controlled, double-blind, randomized and multicenter trial. J Hepatol. 1998;28:615-621.
9 Lang I, et al. Hepatoprotective and immunological effects of antioxidant drugs. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1990;15:123-127.
10 Lang I, et al. Immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective effects of in vivo treatment with free radical scavengers. Ital J Gastroenterol. 1990;22:283-287.
11 Lucena MI, Andrade RJ, de la Cruz JP, et al. Effects of silymarin MZ-80 on oxidative stress in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002;40:2-8.
12 Rambaldi A, Gluud C. S-adenosyl-L-methionine for alcoholic liver diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;CD002235.
13 Mato JM, Camara J, Fernandez de Paz J, et al. S-adenosylmethionine in alcoholic cirrhosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. J Hepatol. 1999;30:1081-1089.
14 Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398.
15 Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Junnila M, et al. Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17:552-555.
16 Murakami T, Nagamura Y, Hirano K. The recovering effect of betaine on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 1998;44:249-255.
17 Kanbak G, Inal M, Baycu C. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and protective effect of betaine. Cell Biochem Funct. 2001;19:281-285.
18 Lieber CS, DeCarli LM, Mak KM, et al. Attenuation of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis by polyunsaturated lecithin. Hepatology. 1990;12:1390-1398.
19 Lieber CS, Leo MA, Mak KM, et al. Choline fails to prevent liver fibrosis in ethanol-fed baboons but causes toxicity. Hepatology. 1985;5:561-572.
20 Lieber CS, Rubin E. Alcoholic fatty liver. N Engl J Med. 1969;280:705-708.
21 Schuller-Perez A, Gonzalez San Martin F. A controlled study with polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine compared to placebo in alcoholic steatosis of the liver [translated from German]. Med Welt. 1985;36:517-521.
22 Knuchel F. Double-blind study in patients with alcoholic toxic fatty liver. Effect of essential phospholipids on enzyme behavior and lipid composition of the serum [translated from German]. Med Welt. 1979;30:411-416.
23 Keung WM, Vallee BL. Kudzu root: an ancient Chinese source of modern antidipsotropic agents. Phytochemistry. 1998;47:499-506.
24 Shebek J, Rindone JP. A pilot study exploring the effect of kudzu root on the drinking habits of patients with chronic alcoholism. J Altern Complement Med. 2000;6:45-48.
25 Bullock ML, Kiresuk TJ, Sherman RE, et al. A large, randomized, placebo-controlled study of auricular acupuncture for alcohol dependence. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2002;22:71-77.
26 Sapir-Weise R, Berglund M, Frank A, et al. Acupuncture in alcoholism treatment: a randomized out-patient study. Alcohol Alcohol. 1999;34:629-635.
27 Worner TM, Zeller B, Schwarz H, et al. Acupuncture fails to improve treatment outcome in alcoholics. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1992;30:169-173.
28 Bullock ML, Umen AJ, Culliton PD, et al. Acupuncture treatment of alcoholic recidivism: a pilot study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1987;11:292-295.
29 Bullock ML, Culliton PD, Olander RT. Controlled trial of acupuncture for severe recidivist alcoholism. Lancet. 1989;1:1435-1439.
30 Akhondzadeh S, Kashani L, Mobaseri M, et al. Passionflower in the treatment of opiates withdrawal: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001;26:369-373.
31 Leo MA, Lieber CS. Alcohol, vitamin A, and beta-carotene: adverse interactions, including hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:1071-1085.
32 Ni R, Leo MA, Zhao J, et al. Toxicity of beta-carotene and its exacerbation by acetaldehyde in HepG2 cells. Alcohol. 2001;36:281-285.
33 Veh I, Chatterjee SS, Kiianmaa K, et al. Reduction of voluntary ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring AA-rats by kava extract. Presented at: International Congress and 49th Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research; September 2-6, 2001; Erlangen, Germany.
34 Markowitz JS, McRae AL, Sonne SC. Oral nutritional supplementation for the alcoholic patient: a brief overview. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2000;12:153-158.
35 European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy. Valerianae radix [fascicule 4]. Monographs on the Medicinal Uses of Plant Drugs. Exeter, UK: ESCOP;1996-1997:2.
36 Chan TY, Tang CH, Critchley JA. Poisoning due to an over-the-counter hypnotic, Sleep-Qik (hyosine, cyproheptadine, valerian). Postgrad Med J. 1995;71:227-228.
37 Chan TY. An assessment of the delayed effects associated with valerian overdose [letter]. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998;36:569.
38 Wiese J, McPherson S, Odden MC, Shlipak MG. Effect of Opuntia ficus indica on symptoms of the alcohol hangover. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1334-1340.
39 Pittler MH, White AR, Stevinson C, et al. Effectiveness of artichoke extract in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 2003;169:1269-1273.
40 Trumpler F, Oez S, Stahli P, et al. Acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal: a randomized controlled trial. Alcohol Alcohol. 2003;38:369-375.
41 Lukas SE, Penetar D, Berko J et al. An extract of the Chinese herbal root kudzu reduces alcohol drinking by heavy drinkers in a naturalistic setting. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29:756-762.
42 Onyesom I. Honey-induced stimulation of blood ethanol elimination and its influence on serum triacylglycerol and blood pressure in man. Ann Nutr Metab. 2005;49:319-24.
43 Kunz S, Schulz M, Lewitzky M, et al. Ear acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal in comparison with aromatherapy: a randomized-controlled trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:436-442.
44 O'Keefe JH, Bybee KA, Lavie CJ. Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the razor-sharp double-edged sword. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:1009-1014.
45 Rambaldi A, Jacobs B, Gluud C. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;CD003620.
46 Saller R, Brignoli R, Melzer J, et al. An updated systematic review with meta-analysis for the clinical evidence of silymarin. Forsch Komplement Med. 2008;15:9-20.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/18/2014 -