Tai Chi (Tai Chi Chuan, Taijiquan) is a traditional form of martial art used more for promoting health than for fighting. Its gentle, dance-like moves are said to strengthen and balance the body’s “energy.” The net results, according to tradition, include increased physical stamina, enhanced sense of well-being and comfort, and improved resistance to illness.
Tai Chi is said to have been invented by the Taoist monk Chang San-Feng sometime in the Middle Ages. (The exact dates and even the existence of this monk are disputed.) Various schools of Tai Chi developed over subsequent centuries, each with their own particular movements and postures, but all conforming to the same underlying principles.
In the 1950s, the Chinese government began to develop a series of standardized Tai Chi forms. One of these has become the most popular form of Tai Chi in the West, a 37-posture form abbreviated from a traditional approach to Tai Chi called the Yang Style.
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Tai Chi?
Although there is some evidence that Tai Chi may offer medical benefits, in general this evidence is not strong. There are several reasons for this (including funding obstacles), but one is fundamental: Even with the best of intentions, it is difficult to properly ascertain the effectiveness of an exercise therapy like Tai Chi.
Only one form of study can truly prove that a treatment is effective: the
double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
However, it isn’t possible to fit Tai Chi into a study design of this type. While it might be possible to design a placebo form of Tai Chi, it would be quite difficult to keep participants and researchers in the dark regarding who is practicing real Tai Chi and who is practicing fake Tai Chi!
Therefore, some compromise with the highest research standards is inevitable. Unfortunately, the compromise used in most studies is less than optimal. In these trials, Tai Chi was compared to no treatment. The problem with such studies is that a treatment—any treatment—frequently appears to be better than no treatment, due to a host of factors. (See
Why Does This Database Rely on Double-blind Studies?
for more information.) It would be better to compare Tai Chi to generic forms of exercise, such as daily walking, but thus far this method has not seen much use.
Given these caveats, the following is a summary of what science has found out about Tai Chi.
Most controlled trials of Tai Chi published in English have evaluated its potential benefits for improving balance in seniors. Falling is one of the most common causes of injury in seniors, leading to fractures, head injuries, and even death. Recovery from fall-related injuries may involve extensive immobilization in bed, which in turn increases the risk of osteoporosis, pneumonia, and depression. According to most (but not all) studies, Tai Chi can improve balance and decrease risk of falling.
For example, in a 10-week study, 24 seniors practiced Tai Chi (one class weekly, plus daily home practice), while a control group of 22 volunteers did not change their activity.
The results showed that people practicing Tai Chi experienced substantially improved balance (measured by the ability to stand on one leg) compared to the control group. Some studies failed to find benefit;
however, this is typical of treatments for which all studies have been small in size. For statistical reasons, small studies commonly fail to identify benefit even when there is one.
Although there is some evidence that Tai Chi can improve balance and reduce the risk of falling, researchers conducting a 2008 review of 9 randomized controlled trials were unable to conclude that Tai Chi or Tai Chi-inspired exercises can effectively prevent fall-related harm in the elderly.
This was largely due to the fact that the trials were too inconsistent in their methods and quality.
Besides balance, Tai Chi may mildly improve flexibility and cardiovascular health, presumably because it is a form of moderate exercise.
However, one fairly large (207-participant) and long-term (1-year) study that compared Tai Chi to resistance exercise (weight lifting) found that while resistance exercises measurably improved one measure of cardiovascular risk (insulin sensitivity), Tai Chi did not affect
measures of cardiovascular risk.
In a review of 26 published studies examining the effectiveness of Tai Chi for
high blood pressure
, 85% demonstrated a reduction in blood pressure. However, only 5 of these 26 studies were of acceptable quality.
While there was no adequate control group, one study found that patients with
congestive heart failure
can benefit from Tai Chi.
Two other studies found that Tai Chi may improve the quality of life in people with this heart condition.
In two controlled studies, Tai Chi produced some benefit in bone density, suggesting the possibility that it might be helpful for preventing
A few studies provide inconsistent evidence for the usefulness of Tai Chi as a treatment for
and a highly preliminary study suggests it may be beneficial for mild to moderate rheumatoid arthritis.
In a small, randomized controlled trial of 66 patients, Tai Chi appeared to improve symptoms, function, and quality of life in patients with
In one randomized study, a certain form of Tai Chi was more effective than health education after 25 weeks in subjects with moderate
A review of 7 studies found insufficient evidence to conclude whether or not Tai Chi improves quality of life or psychological or physical outcomes in patients with breast cancer.
In a randomized trial of 95 patients with
, Tai Chi improved symptoms, like balance, gait, and strength, compared to other forms of treatment (ie, resistance training, stretching).
In a randomized trial involving 160 people with low
, Tai Chi was more effective in reducing pain and improving function than usual care.
Wu G. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Tai Chi for improving balance and preventing falls in the older population—a review.
J Am Geriatr Soc.
Schaller KJ. Tai Chi Chih: an exercise option for older adults.
J Gerontol Nurs.
Li JX, Hong Y, Chan KM. Tai chi: physiological characteristics and beneficial effects on health.
Br J Sports Med.
Li F, Harmer P, Fisher KJ et al. Tai chi: improving functional balance and predicting subsequent falls in older persons.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
Thomas GN, Hong AW, Tomlinson B et al. Effects of Tai Chi and resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors in elderly Chinese subjects: a 12-month longitudinal, randomized, controlled intervention study.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)
Maciaszek J, Osinski W, Szeklicki R, et al. Effect of tai chi on body balance: randomized controlled trial in men with osteopenia or osteoporosis.
Am J Chin Med
Brismee JM, Paige RL, Chyu MC, et al. Group and home-based tai chi in elderly subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.
Woo J, Hong A, Lau E, et al. A randomised controlled trial of Tai Chi and resistance exercise on bone health, muscle strength, and balance in community-living elderly people.
. 2007 Mar 13 [Epub ahead of print].
Wayne PM, Kiel DP, Krebs DE, et al. The effects of tai chi on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a systematic review.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil.
Lee MS, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Tai chi for osteoarthritis: a systematic review.
2007 Sep 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Yeh GY, Wang C, Wayne PM, et al. The effect of tai chi exercise on blood pressure: a systematic review.
Low S, Ang LW, Goh KS, et al. A systematic review of the effectiveness of Tai Chi on fall reduction among the elderly.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr.
2008 Apr 15
Wang C. Tai chi improves pain and functional status in adults with rheumatoid arthritis: results of a pilot single-blinded randomized controlled trial.
Med Sport Sci.
Yeh GY, Wayne PM, Phillips RS. T'ai Chi exercise in patients with chronic heart failure.
Med Sport Sci.
Harmer PA, Li F. Tai chi and falls prevention in older people.
Med Sport Sci.
Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Motivala SJ. Improving sleep quality in older adults with moderate sleep complaints: A randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi Chih.
Lee MS, Choi TY, Ernst E. Tai chi for breast cancer patients: a systematic review. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Apr;120(2):309.
Wang C, Schmid C, Rones R, et al. A randomized trial of Tai Chi for fibromyalgia.
N Engl J Med
Mind or body: evaluating mind-body therapy efficacy in heart failure trials.
Arch Intern Med.
Barrow DE, Bedford A, Ives G, O'Toole L, Channer KS.
An evaluation of the effects of Tai Chi Chuan and Chi Kung training in patients with symptomatic heart failure: a randomised controlled pilot study.
Postgrad Med J.
Li F, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, et al. Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson's disease.
N Engl J Med.
Hall AM, Maher CG, Lam P, Ferreira M, Latimer J. Tai chi exercise for treatment of pain and disability in people with persistent low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)