(Atrial Septal Defect; Atrioventricular Canal Defect; Atrioventricular Septal Defect; Endocardial Cushion Defect; Ventricular Septal Defect)
- Atrial septal defect (ASD)—a hole in the wall between the two upper chambers (atrium) of the heart
- Ventricular septal defect (VSD)—a hole in the wall between the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart
- Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD)—a combination of ASD, VSD, and problems with opening between chambers (called valves)
|Ventricular Septal Defect|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Family history of congenital heart defects
- Exposure to a viral infection, drugs, or alcohol during pregnancy
- Shortness of breath
- Getting tired easily
- Poor growth
- High blood pressure in the lungs and possibly damage to the blood vessels in the lungs (in VSD and AVSD)
ASD treatment options include:
- About 40% of all ASDs will close on their own during the first year of life. This is more likely to occur with small defects.
- An ASD that still exists at age 2 is unlikely to ever close on its own. If it is not closed in childhood, it may cause problems in adulthood.
- Surgery may be recommended in children with ASD's past age 2 years.
- Some ASDs can be closed without surgery. A device is placed in the hole with cardiac catheterization . This is a process that send the device to the heart through a large blood vessel.
VSD treatment options include:
- Many VSDs will close on their own during the first year of life. This is more likely to occur with small defects.
- Small VSDs that do not close rarely cause problems.
- Medium and large VSDs may cause problems. They may need supportive treatment in the first few months of life.
- Surgery may be needed in children with defects that cause symptoms or do not close after 1 year.
AVSD treatment options include:
- Most infants with AVSD will have symptoms. Therefore they will need treatment.
- Medication may be needed. They can help the heart beat strongly, keep the heart rate regular, or decrease the amount of fluid in the blood flow.
- Physical activity may need to be limited.
- Surgery to close the defect.
- congestive heart failure—infants with signs of congestive heart failure may need to take medicine.
Living With Septal Defects
American Heart Association http://www.americanheart.org/
March of Dimes http://www.marchofdimes.com/
Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca/home/index%5Fe.aspx
Canadian Family Physician http://www.cfpc.ca/
Antibiotic prophylaxis. American Dental Association website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/p/Premedication-or-Antibiotics.aspx . Accessed August 10, 2012.
Congenital heart defects. March of Dimes website. Available at: http://www.marchofdimes.com/baby/birthdefects%5Fcongenitalheart.html . Accessed August 10, 2012.
Congenital heart defects. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/Congenital-Heart-Defects%5FUCM%5F001090%5FSubHomePage.jsp . Accessed August 10, 2012.
Patent foramen ovale and other atrial septal defects (ASD). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated June 2012. Accessed August 10, 2012.
Ventricular septal defect. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated June 2012. Accessed August 10, 2012.
6/18/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Jentink J, Loane M, Dolk H, et al. Valproic acid monotherapy in pregnancy and major congenital malformations. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(23):2185.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 09/26/2012 -