- Playing an essential role in the blood-clotting process by making the proteins that stop bleeding
- Helping your body make other proteins essential for blood, bones, and kidneys
Adequate Intake (AI)
Vitamin K Deficiency
- Easy bruising and bleeding—nosebleeds, bleeding gums, blood in the urine, blood in the stool, or extremely heavy menstrual bleeding
- Bleeding in the skull in infants
Vitamin K Toxicity
Major Food Sources
- Brussels sprouts
- Collard greens
- Bib lettuce
- Green pepper
- Canola and soybean oils
If You Take a Blood-thinning Drug
If You Take Antibiotics
If You Have Liver Disease
If You Have a Newborn Baby
Tips For Increasing Your Vitamin K Intake
- Slice an avocado. Add a little balsamic vinegar and pepper, and scoop out for a snack. Or, mash the avocado and mix with chopped tomatoes and red onions for a refreshing salsa.
- Pack a kiwi and spoon in your lunch for an afternoon snack. The insides of the kiwi can be scooped out and eaten from this natural and easy container.
- Steam ½ cup broccoli or Brussels sprouts, add lemon juice (1 tbsp), pre-chopped garlic (1 tsp), and Dijon mustard (1 tbsp). Or add broccoli to your favorite lasagna or hot dish.
- Mix 2 (10-ounce) packages of frozen chopped spinach, thawed, well drained, 1 8-ounce package of softened low-fat cream cheese, ¼ cup milk, and 1 teaspoon lemon pepper until well-blended. Spoon into a 1-quart casserole dish and sprinkle with 1/3 cup crushed crackers or seasoned croutons. Bake at 350°F (177ºC) until thoroughly heated (about 25-30 min.).
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics http://www.eatright.org
Choose My Plate—US Department of Agriculture http://www.choosemyplate.gov
Dietitians of Canada http://www.dietitians.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Booth SL, Sadowski JA, Pennington JAT. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content of foods in the US Food and Drug Administration’s total diet study. J Agric Food Chem. 1995; 43:1574-1579.
Common foods and their vitamin K content. Anticoagulation Europe website. Available at: http://www.anticoagulationeurope.org/files/files/Some%20common%20foods%20and%20the%20vitamin%20K%20content%20Jan%202013%20(1).pdf. Accessed March 10, 2014.
Fat-soluable vitamins: A, D, E, and K. Colorado State University website. Available at: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09315.html. Updated January 8, 2014. Accessed March 10, 2014.
Phytonadione. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 18, 2013. Accessed March 10, 2014.
Vitamin K. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/academic/natural-alternative-treatments. Updated August 2013. Accessed March 10, 2014.
Vitamin K. The Linus Pauling Institute website. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminK/. Updated December 19, 2011. Accessed March 10, 2014.
Vitamin K deficiency. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 20, 2010. Accessed March 10, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 03/2014 -
- Update Date: 03/10/2014 -