(Binswanger’s Disease; Senile Dementia; Binswanger’s Type; Vascular Cognitive Impairment; Arteriosclerotic Dementia; Atherosclerotic Disease)
|Healthy and Injured Brain Blood Vessels|
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- Increased age
- High blood pressure—the most closely associated risk factor
- Alzheimer’s dementia—can occur along with vascular dementia
- Cardiovascular disease
- Hardening of blood vessels—atherosclerosis and lipohyalinosis
- Conditions that cause the blood to clot
- Genetic disorders
- Progressive loss of intellectual abilities, processing speed, and cognitive and motor abilities
- Progressive memory loss
- Slow, unsteady walking
- Personality changes
- Laughing, crying, or smiling during inappropriate times
- Difficulty speaking
- Swallowing difficulties
- Paralysis or weakness of one or both sides of the body
- Loss of interest in activities
- Tremors, loss of coordination, loss of trunk mobility
- Nighttime confusion
- Electrocardiogram (EKG)—to measure electrical activity of the heart
- Electroencephalogram (EEG)—to measure electrical activity of the brain
- Neuropsychological testing
- Medications to control:
- Antidepressant medications
- Nimodipine—may help improve cognitive function in the short-term, but lacks evidence to support its long term use
- Medications used to treat Alzheimer's disease, such as donepezil and memantine
- Don’t smoke. If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how you can successfully quit.
- Eat a diet that is low in fat and low in salt.
- If you drink alcohol, do so only in moderation. Moderate alcohol intake is two drinks per day for men; one drink per day for women.
- Have your blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels checked at least once a year.
- If you have diabetes, maintain your blood glucose in your target range.
- Avoid low blood pressure. If you get lightheaded when you stand up, or have a history of fainting, talk to your doctor.
Alzheimer’s Association http://www.alz.org
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov
Alzheimer Society of Canada http://www.alzheimer.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.com
Binswanger’s disease—revisited. Neurology. 1995;45: 626-633.
Kirschner H. Vascular dementia: a review of recent evidence for prevention and treatment. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2009;9(6):437-442.
Roman GC. Brain hypoperfusion: a critical factor in vascular dementia. Neurol Res. 2004;26:454-458.
Roman GC, Erkinjuntti T, Wallin A, et al. Subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia. Lancet Neurology. 2002;1:426-436.
Smith EE. Leukoariosis and stroke. Stroke. 2010;41(10 Suppl):S139-143.
Tomassoni D, Lanari A, Silvestrelli G, Traini E, Amenta F. Nimodipine and its use in cerebrovascular disease: evidence from recent preclinical and controlled clinical studies. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2008;30(8):744-766.
Vascular dementia. Alzheimer's Association website. Available at: http://www.alz.org/dementia/vascular-dementia-symptoms.asp. Accessed July 29, 2013.
Vascular dementia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 8, 2013. Accessed July 29, 2013.
Vascular dementia: a resource list. National Institute on Aging website. Available at: http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/vascular-dementia-resource-list. Accessed July 29, 2013.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 05/2014 -
- Update Date: 00/60/2014 -