- A blood vessel pressing on the facial nerve
- Facial nerve injury
- Bony or other abnormalities that compress the nerve
|Muscles of the Face|
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- Intermittent twitching of the eyelid muscle
- Forced closure of the eye
- Spasms of the muscles of the lower face
- Mouth pulled to one side
- Continuous spasms involving all the muscles on one side of the face
Botulinum Toxin Injections
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov
National Organization for Rare Disorders http://www.rarediseases.org
Canadian Movement Disorder Group http://www.cmdg.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Alexander GE, Moses H. Carbamazepine for hemifacial spasm. Neurology. 1982;32(3):286-287.
Defazio G, Martino D, Aniello MS, et al. Influence of age on the association between primary hemifacial spasm and arterial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(7):979-981.
Digre K, Corbett JJ. Hemifacial spasm: Differential diagnosis, mechanism, and treatment. Adv Neurol. 1988;49:151-176.
NINDS hemifacial spasm information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/hemifacial%5Fspasm/hemifacial%5Fspasm.htm. Updated October 11, 2011. Accessed July 11, 2013.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 06/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/30/2014 -