Homocysteine and Heart Disease
Homocysteine and Heart Disease
What Is Homocysteine?
Does Homocysteine Increase the Risk of Heart Attack?
What If You Have Elevated Homocysteine Levels?
- Males and females aged 14 and older—400 micrograms (mcg)
- Vitamin B6
- Males aged 19-50 years—1.3 milligrams (mg)
- Males aged 51 years and older—1.7 mg
- Females aged 19-50 years—1.3 mg
- Females aged 51 years and older—1.5 mg
- Vitamin B12
- Males and females aged 14 years and older—2.4 micrograms
- Folate—citrus fruits, fortified breakfast cereal, vegetables
- Vitamin B6—fortified breakfast cereal, bananas, baked potatoes with skin
- Vitamin B12—fortified breakfast cereal, fish, meat, poultry, and dairy products
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.com
Coronary Artery Disease: High Homocysteine Level: How It Affects Your Blood Vessels. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/causes-risk-factors/high-homocysteine-level-how-it-affects-your-blood-vessels.html. Updated May 2014. Accessed December 30, 2014.
Eikelboom JW, Lonn E, Genest J Jr, et al. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence. Ann Intern Med.1999 Sep 7;131:363-375.
Hankey GJ, Eikelboom JW. Homocysteine and vascular disease. Lancet. 1999;354:407-413.
Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 4, 2013. Accessed December 30, 2014.
Homocysteine, folic acid, and cardiovascular disease. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/Homocysteine-Folic-Acid-and-Cardiovascular-Disease%5FUCM%5F305997%5FArticle.jsp. Updated March 18, 2014. Accessed December 30, 2014.
Liem A, Reynierse-Buitenwerf GH, Zwinderman AH, Jukema JW, van Veldhuisen DJ. Secondary prevention with folic acid: Effects on clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:2105–2113.
Moustapha A, Robinson K. Homocysteine: an emerging age-related cardiovascular risk factor. Geriatrics.1999;41:49-51.
Pyridoxine. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 18, 2013. Accessed December 30, 2014.
Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, Pin R, Hess OM. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention: the Swiss Heart study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288:973–979.
Stein JH, McBride PE. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Athrosclerotic Vascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Screening, and Treatment. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(12):1301-1306.
Vitamin B12. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 5, 2013. Accessed December 30, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 12/2014 -
- Update Date: 12/30/2014 -