- Blockages in the lungs and airways
- Problems digesting and absorbing nutrients
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- Parents who are known carriers of the CF gene
- Siblings with CF
- Parents with CF—mostly the mother since men with CF are often sterile
- Difficulty passing the first stool
- Salty sweat
- Intestinal obstruction, sometimes requiring surgery
- Coughing and wheezing
- Shortness of breath
- Difficulty with exercise
- Abnormally shaped clubbed finger tips
- Malformed chest
- Bulky, bad-smelling, floating stools, due to poor digestion of fats
- Trouble gaining weight
- Poor growth
- Failure to thrive
- Jaundice or other symptoms of liver disease
- Chronic nasal congestion from chronic sinus infections
- Prolapsed rectum
- Nasal polyps
- Excessive thirst or urination that may indicate diabetes mellitus type 2
- Stomach pain or swelling from intestinal blockage
- Prevention of sperm production in males
- Mildly decreased fertility in females
- Sweat chloride testing
- Transepithelial nasal potential difference measurement
- Improving the amount of nutrition your body receives
- Preventing and treating lung and sinus infections
- Keeping the airways and lungs as clear as possible
- A high-calorie diet planned by a registered dietitian
- Nutritional supplements, including fat-soluble vitamins
- Pancreatic enzyme tablets with meals to improve digestion and absorption of nutrients
- Drinking lots of fluids and salt replacement, especially in hot weather or during illnesses
Managing Lung Infections
- Antibiotics (usually inhaled)
Lung and Airway Support
- Bronchodilators—to relax muscles and open the airway
- Mucolytic agents—to reduce mucus and help it move out of the lung
- Steroid inhalers—to decrease swelling and irritation (only when necessary)
- Hypertonic saline is a special type of salt water. A nebulizer machine creates a mist of this saline, which is inhaled. The mist may help thin out the mucus in the lungs.
- Chest percussion is rhythmic clapping over the chest. They may help clear mucus from airways. It is most helpful if done at least twice per day.
American Lung Association http://www.lung.org
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation http://www.cff.org
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca
The Lung Association http://www.lung.ca
About cystic fibrosis: what you need to know. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.cff.org/AboutCF. Accessed May 21, 2013.
Cystic fibrosis. American Academy of Pediatrics Healthy Children website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/chronic/Pages/Cystic-Fibrosis.aspx. Updated January 9, 2012. Accessed May 21, 2013.
Cystic fibrosis (CF). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 13, 2014. Accessed November 6, 2014.
Cystic fibrosis testing. American Medical Association website. Available at: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-science/genetics-molecular-medicine/related-policy-topics/genetic-testing/cystic-fibrosis-testing.page. Accessed May 21, 2013.
4/16/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Lai HJ, Shoff SM, et al. Wisconsin Cystic Fibrosis Neonatal Screening Group. Recovery of birth weight z score within 2 years of diagnosis is positively associated with pulmonary status at 6 years of age in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics. 2009;123:714-722.
10/1/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Elphick HE, Mallory G. Oxygen therapy for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;7:CD003884.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 02/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/07/2014 -