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- Illicit drug injection use, especially when sharing needles
- Unprotected sexual contact, especially with multiple partners
- Sharing a residence and/or personal items with someone who has HBV
- Stay in hospital or long-term care facility
- Hemodialysis treatment
- Work that includes contact with blood or body fluids, such as health care or public safety workers
- Travel to areas where HBV is common
- Fatigue that lasts for weeks or months
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea or vomiting
- Low-grade fever
- Jaundice —a yellowing skin and eyes
- Abdominal pain in the upper right side of the abdomen
- Joint pain
- Dark urine and light-colored stool
- Avoid alcohol
- Avoid certain medications, dietary supplements, and herbs
- Contact recent sexual partners so they can be tested and/or treated
- Use condoms regularly or abstain from sex.
- Limit your number of sexual partners.
- Do not inject drugs. If you use IV drugs, get treatment to help you stop . Never share needles or syringes.
- Do not share personal items that may have blood or body fluids on them.
- Make sure a tattoo artist or piercer properly sterilizes the equipment.
- Wear gloves when touching or cleaning up body fluids on personal items.
- Cover open cuts or wounds.
- If you are pregnant, have a blood test for hepatitis B. Infants born to mothers with hepatitis B should be treated within 12 hours after birth.
- Go to regular check ups and get tested for hepatitis B and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as advised.
American Liver Foundation http://www.liverfoundation.org
Hepatitis B Foundation http://www.hepb.org
Canadian Liver Foundation http://www.liver.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Baker CJ, Pickerling LK, et al. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended adult immunization schedule: United States, 2011. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(3):168-173.
Hepatitis B. American Liver Foundation website. Available at: http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/hepatitisb. Updated February 17, 2012. Accessed February 13, 2014.
Hepatitis B information for health professionals. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HBV. Updated May 16, 2012. Accessed February 13, 2014.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 4, 2014. Accessed February 13, 2014.
Vaccine information statement: hepatitis B vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-b.pdf. Updated June 18, 2013. Accessed February 13, 2014.
Workowski KA, Berman S, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(No. RR-12):1-110.
10/8/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) recommendations on testing for sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men. Available at: http://www.bashh.org/documents/BASHH%20Recommendations%20for%20testing%20for%20STIs%20in%20MSM%20-%20FINAL.pdf. Updated 2014. Accessed October 8, 2014.
- Reviewer: David L Horn, MD, FACP
- Review Date: 02/2015 -
- Update Date: 10/08/2014 -