- Compulsions and ritualistic behaviors
- Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD or ADHD)
- Learning disabilities
- Difficulties with impulse control
- Sleep disorders
|TS is inherited through genes, which make up DNA.|
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- Family history of TS
- Having other tic disorders
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder
- Maternal stress during pregnancy
- Daily use of coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol by the mother before pregnancy
- Both motor and vocal tics
- Be present for more than 1 year
- Start before age 18
- Not absent at any time for more than 3 months
- Not be due to a physiological cause like substances or a medical condition
- Simple—eye blinking, head jerking, arm or shoulder shrugging
- Complex—jumping, smelling, touching things or other people, twirling around
- Simple—throat clearing, coughing, sniffing, grunting, yelping, barking
- Complex—saying words or phrases that do not make sense in a given situation, saying obscene or socially unacceptable words—called coprolalia
Education and Therapy
- Behavior therapy can help people with TS learn to substitute their tics with other movements or sounds that are more acceptable.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy can help reduce obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
- Psychotherapy can help people with TS and their families cope with the disorder.
- Clonidine—usually the first medication tried to control tics, but may not be effective
- Antipsychotics—to help control tics
- Antidepressants—to manage related obsessive-compulsive habits
- Stimulants or medication used to treat high blood pressure—to manage symtoms related to ADD and ADHD
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov
Tourette Syndrome Association http://www.tsa-usa.org
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca
Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada http://www.tourette.ca
NINDS tourette syndrome information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tourette/tourette.htm. Updated October 19, 2012. Accessed April 3, 2013.
Tourette syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 3, 2012. April 3, 2013.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/06/2014 -